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Spring 2008

In this edition

Survey shows levels of sulphites in dried apricots have decreased since 2003

FSANZ looks at international opinion on aluminium

Keeping an eye on food recalls

Survey on the presence of gluten in foods labelled “gluten-free”

OzFoodNet Report: Summary of Foodborne Outbreaks in Australia, 2006

Foodborne outbreaks 2006

Survey shows levels of sulphites in dried apricots have decreased since 2003

Sulphur dioxide is routinely used as a chemical preservative as it inhibits microbial growth as well as enzymatic and Maillard-type browning reactions. Sulphur dioxide and sodium and potassium sulphites, including bisulphites and metabisulphites (collectively referred to as sulphites) are permitted additives in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code (the Code) to wine, cordials, dried fruit and vegetables and comminuted meat products.

The level of sulphites in food was investigated as part of the 21st Australian Total Diet Study (ATDS). The results of this study indicated that for some age-gender groups, consumption of sulphites may exceed the relevant reference health standard for a proportion of the population. Consumption of dried apricots, in particular, was found to contribute significantly to estimated dietary exposure to sulphite in children. The findings of the 21st ATDS led to the FSANZ proposal,‘ P298: Benzoate and Sulphite Permissions in Food’ to consider revising the current Maximum Permitted Level (MPL) for sulphites and benzoates in the Code.

FSANZ has continued to investigate the levels of sulphites used in dried apricots and, in 2008, the Surveillance program conducted an analytical survey to measure the current levels of sulphites in dried apricots and apricot-containing products in Australia. This was on advice from industry that the levels of sulphites in dried apricots for sale in Australia had changed since 2003, due to increased importation of dried apricots from Turkey.

FSANZ designed and funded the survey and analysis was performed by Symbio Alliance, the contracted analytical laboratory, located in Brisbane. A total of 120 samples were collected by FSANZ in the ACT and in Queanbeyan, NSW. Sampling was conducted in two phases, to maximise the variety of batch numbers and use by dates of the products purchased. Dried apricots and apricot containing products were selected based on retail sales and product availability. The samples collected included dried Turkish apricots (50%), dried non-Turkish (Australian and imported) apricots (33%) and apricot containing products, such as ‘apricot delight’ (17%) (Figure 1).

Composited samples were prepared for three categories for investigation: Turkish, non-Turkish and apricot containing products, with the apricot purchases composited for each analysis. By keeping the three categories separate, the level of sulphites in these products could be determined and compared.

Figure 1: The proportion of samples collected for sulphite analysis in dried apricots and apricot-containing products

FSN_1_spring_2008

The survey found that the mean sulphite levels in dried Turkish and non-Turkish apricots were similar; however the range was considerably larger for Turkish apricots (Figure 2). For apricot-containing products, the mean analytical concentration of sulphites was approximately 3-fold lower than the mean concentration determined for dried apricots. The sulphite levels in all products tested in this survey were below the MPL in the Code of 3000 mg/kg.

In this survey, the sulphite levels detected in dried apricots also appeared to be lower than those found in the 21st ATDS. A comparison of the mean sulphite concentrations in dried apricots analysed in the 21st ATDS (n=9) with the current survey (n= 26), showed approximately a 25% reduction in mean sulphite levels. This finding is consistent with industry advice that sulphite levels in dried apricots have reduced since 2003.

This survey of sulphites in dried apricot and apricot-containing products consumed in Australia provides reassurance that sulphite levels are below the MPL set in the Code. These new data suggest that levels have been reduced since data were collected for the 21st ATDS in 2003. While dietary exposure estimations have not been conducted for this survey, the new data will provide further evidence to inform the FSANZ proposal,‘ P298: Benzoate and Sulphite Permissions in Food,’details available on the FSANZ website at ( http://new-admin-www.foodstandards.gov.au/).

Figure 2: The mean, maximum and minimum analytical concentration of sulphites in dried apricots and apricot-containing products

FSN_2_spring_2008

Report of the 22nd Australian Total Diet Study Australian dietary intakes of iodine, selenium, chromium, molybdenum, and nickel

The Australian Total Diet Study (ATDS), formerly known as the Australian Market Basket Survey, is Australia ’s most comprehensive assessment of consumers’ dietary intake of a range of food chemicals, including pesticide residues, contaminants, nutrients, food additives and other substances.

FSANZ took a new approach in conducting the 22nd ATDS, by focusing the Study exclusively on levels of nutrients in the diet. The nutrients examined were the trace elements: iodine, selenium, chromium, molybdenum, and nickel. FSANZ funded and coordinated the 22nd ATDS, while the food regulatory agencies in the State and Territory governments collected the food samples in their region The Australian Government Analytical Laboratory (now the National Measurement Institute) carried out sample preparation and analyses.

Which foods were sampled in the study?

A total of 96 types of foods, sampled during July/August and November/December 2004, were tested for the five trace elements. Foods analysed included meat, dairy, oils and spreads, bread and bakery products and vegetables to cover as broad a spectrum of the diet as possible (Figure 1). The food types selected included both foods that might be expected to show regional variation (regional foods), and foods that were available nationwide and were not expected to show regional variation (national foods). Food types were sampled in each of the States and Territories in Australia. For each food, between six and ten composite samples were prepared, each consisting of three primary samples. Overall, 2220 primary samples were purchased and a total of 740 composite samples analysed.

In order to achieve more accurate dietary intake estimates, the foods examined in the ATDS were prepared to a ‘table ready’ state before they were analysed. As a consequence, both raw and cooked foods were examined.

For which age groups were estimates of dietary intake calculated?

Estimated dietary intakes of iodine, selenium, chromium, molybdenum, and nickel were calculated for a range of age–gender groups: infants aged 9 months; girls and boys aged 2-3 years; girls and boys aged 4-8 years; girls and boys aged 9-13 years; adolescent females and males aged 14-18; adult females and males aged 19-29; adult females and males aged 30-49 years; adult females and males aged 50-69 years; and adult females and males aged 70 years and over.

How was dietary intake estimated?

Dietary intake was estimated by determining the level of the nutrient in foods by laboratory analysis, and then combining this with the amount of food consumed using food consumption data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (NNS) for people two years and over. Diets for each individual in the representative age-gender groups from the 1995 NNS were used for intake estimations. Any contribution that complementary medicines, such as dietary supplements, may have made to dietary intake was excluded. For the infants aged 9 months, a theoretical diet was constructed based on an extrapolation of the 2 year old diet from the 1995 NNS.

The ATDS uses internationally accepted methodology for studies of this kind and is well regarded internationally. Nevertheless, there are a number of uncertainties inherent in the dietary intake assessments for all total diet studies. These are associated with the assumptions that were made in the calculations, limitations of the laboratory test data and sampling, and the age of the food consumption data that were derived from the 1995 NNS. Despite these uncertainties, the intake assessments presented in this study represent a reliable estimate of dietary intake for the five nutrients for the Australian population using the best available data.

How was dietary adequacy/inadequacy assessed for each population group?

The estimated dietary intake of each nutrient from the Australian diet was compared to their respective reference health standards for Australian population groups, where available. This comparison used the relevant Australian Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake levels (AI) and the Upper Level of Intake (UL) endorsed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in 2006 .

What are the main findings of the 22nd ATDS?

The results of the study showed that the Australian food supply provides most Australians with adequate dietary intakes of the trace elements selenium, chromium and molybdenum. However, a significant proportion of Australians were found have inadequate dietary intakes of iodine, with levels of inadequacy ranging from 7% in boys aged between 4 and 8 years to 84% in women aged over 70 years.

The results of the study support previous findings in relation to iodine deficiency and consequently, FSANZ will be introducing mandatory fortification of iodine in bread, from September 2009, to enhance public health.

The selenium concentration in some foods, and estimated dietary intakes, appeared to be lower in this study than previously reported in the 20th ATDS. FSANZ will continue to monitor selenium levels in the Australian food supply and has included selenium analysis in the 23rd ATDS, which is already underway.

The study provided further reassurance with no concerns about excessive dietary intake of these nutrients among Australians.

The major findings for each of the trace elements examined in this study are outlined in Figure 2.

The full details of the study can be found on the FSANZ website,http://new-admin-www.foodstandards.gov.au/science/monitoring/pages/australiantotaldiets1914.aspx

Figure 1: The types of foods sampled in the 22nd ATDS

Figure 2: The findings of the 22nd ATDS


FSANZ looks at international opinion on aluminium

Aluminium occurs naturally in the environment but is also released through industrial activity and mining. While aluminium is present in the environment, direct human exposure to aluminium primarily occurs through food, with contributions from water considered to be minor. Aluminium is readily present in a wide variety of staple foods such as breads, cereals and vegetables. Aluminium containing food additives such as sodium aluminium phosphate, primarily used in baked products, are another potential source of dietary exposure to aluminium. In addition, the migration of aluminium from packaging materials such as aluminium foil and cookware may also contribute to the aluminium concentration in food and subsequently add to the dietary exposure.

The level of dietary exposure to aluminium has been of international interest in recent years. At the 67th meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), held in June 2006, the safety of aluminium was re-evaluated incorporating a number of new safety studies showing potential reproductive and nervous system effects in animals at lower doses than previously found. Accordingly, the Committee established a Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 1 mg/kg bw for all sources of aluminium including food additives and withdrew the previous PTWI of 7 mg/kg bw set in 1988 (JECFA, 2008).

In light of the revised PTWI set by JECFA, the European Commission called upon the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to provide their opinion on the safety of aluminium in food. The EFSA’s scientific panel of experts established a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 1 mg/kg bw, a similar conclusion to JECFA (EFSA, 2008). The EFSA also noted that a significant proportion of the European population are likely to exceed the TWI based on current mean dietary exposure estimates, and therefore the need for more recent robust data on the sources of aluminium in the food supply and manufacturer use was warranted (EFSA, 2008).

Other agencies, such as Health Canada’s Bureau of Chemical Safety, have also commenced a review of exposure to aluminium in foods, with particular focus on aluminium salts used as food additives (Health Canada, 2008).

Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) has continued to monitor international developments concerning aluminium, in particular the outcomes of the JECFA and the EFSA evaluations. FSANZ supports the need to acquire robust data on the levels of aluminium in the food supply and has included aluminium in the assessment of metals in the 23rd Australian Total Diet Study (ATDS), which is currently underway. These new data will enable FSANZ to estimate the dietary exposure of Australians to aluminium and assess whether there are any risks to health and safety from the presence of aluminium in foods. This information will be fundamental in informing any future risk management strategies that may be required.

References

EFSA (2008)EFSA Advises on the Safety of Aluminium in Food.pp1-2. http://www.efsa.eu.int/EFSA/efsa_locale-1178620753812_1211902004106.htm. Accessed on 28/08/2008
Health Canada (2008)Health Canada Review of Dietary Exposure to Aluminium. pp1-3. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/addit/aluminium-eng.php . Accessed on 29/08/2008
JECFA (2008)Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Sixty-seventh meeting, Rome, 20-29 June 2006- Summary and Conclusions. pp1-11. http://www.who.int/ipcs/food/jecfa/summaries/summary67.pdf . Accessed on

Keeping an eye on food recalls

Government agencies in Australia and New Zealand constantly monitor the food supply to ensure that it is safe, and that foods comply with standards for microbiological contaminants, pesticide and veterinary medicine residue limits and chemical contamination.

Food identified as a risk to public health and safety is recalled. FSANZ is the coordinating agency for all food recalls in Australia and the New Zealand Food Safety Authority (NZFSA) is the responsible authority in New Zealand.

Australian recalls over the months of July to August 2008 included:

  • The manufacturer Smashing Pumpkins voluntarily recalled Smashing Pumpkins Yoghurt Sultanas Tubs with a Use By of 15.09.08. The reason for this recall was due to an undeclared allergen, as the product contains peanuts, not being declared on the label. Consumers who are allergic to peanuts should not consume this product and dispose of it. This recall only applies to products with the nominated Use By date. Apart from this issue, there is no other fault with this product. Consumers who are not allergic to peanuts can safely consume this product.
  • Primo Smallgoods voluntarily recalled Primo Smallgoods in response to testing which indicated the presence ofListeria monocytogenes. This recall applies only to the products listed below. No other Primo Smallgoods products are affected by this recall. The recall products are:

    • Primo Roast Beef Thinly Sliced 100g, Use By date: 16/09/08
    • Primo Pastrami Thinly Sliced 100g, Use By date: 16/09/08

Weight Watchers Australia conducted a voluntary recall of Rich Toffee Bars (5 x 28g bar; Best Before: MAR – 09; BATCH CODE: L8079 and L8080) sold in Weight Watchers meeting locations and over the internet. The reason for this recall is due to the product containing egg white which was not declared on the label and may pose a health risk to consumers with intolerance to egg white. Consumers who are not allergic to eggs can safely consume this product. This recall only applies to products with the nominated size, Best Before date and batch codes. No other Weight Watchers products are affected by this product recall. Apart from this issue there is no other fault with this product.

AGB International Pty Ltd voluntarily recalled a number of products which are currently being sold throughout Australia. The recall has been initiated as a precautionary measure as a small number of products have shown a blue discoloration in the minced garlic upon heating. The recall applies only to the products listed below with the nominated sizes, four digit codes or Use By date.

  • Chilled and Frozen Garlic Breads:
  • AGB Baguette 225g - 8210 & 8211
  • AGB Cheesy Loaf with Garlic 425g - 8215
  • AGB Loaf with Sesame Seeds 360g – 8205, 8208, 8210 & 8206
  • AGB Garlic Bread 16 Slices 400g – 8189, 8190, 8212, 8205, 8197, 8213, 8203
  • Mama Mia Garlic 450g – Use By 30AUG08
  • Black & Gold Garlic Bread 3 Pack 675g – 8207 & 8212
  • Black & Gold Garlic Bread Twin Pack 450g – Use By 8207 & 8211
  • Best Buy Garlic Bread Traditional Style - 8213
  • Homebrand Garlic Bread 450g - Use By 23 AUG08 & 3 SEP08 inclusive
  • Foodland Garlic Bread Twin Pack 450g - 8213
  • Coles Smartbuy Garlic Bread 3 Pack 675g - Use By 23 AUG08 to 2 SEP08 inclusive
  • You’ll Love Coles Garlic Bread with Parsley and Butter 225g - Use By 25AUG08 & 1SEP08
  • You’ll Love Coles Garlic Bread with Parsley and Butter Twin Pack 450g - Use By 24AUG08, 25AUG08 & 31AUG08

Kraft Foods Limited conducted a voluntary food recall of a ready-to-eat meal with Best Before dates: 06 AUG 10 – 10 JUL 11 inclusive, as a precautionary health measure. This recall is being made because some of the products have been found to contain small pieces of rigid, blue plastic which originated from the manufacturing process. The recall applies only to the products listed below and Best Before dates, consumers should not consume these products. The products affected include:

  • KRAFT Braised Steak and Onions – 95g, 185g, 340g, 410g (can)
  • KRAFT Braised Steak and Mushroom - 410g (can)
  • KRAFT Braised Steak and Vegetables – 410g (can)

National Foods announced an immediate, voluntary recall of its range Yoplait Go-Gurt and Yoplait Smackers tube products for all Best Before dates up to and including 27/09/08, as a result of a packaging defect. The packaging defect means there is a risk of small pieces of clear plastic film separating from the outside of the tube which may pose a choking hazard, especially for small children. The products affected are:

  • Yoplait Go-Gurt Spiders pack of 8 x 70g
  • Yoplait Go-Gurt Strawberry & Fruit Salad pack of 8 x 70g
  • Yoplait Raspberry & Apricot pack of 8 x 70g
  • Yoplait Smackers Strawberry pack of 8 x 70g
  • Yoplait Smackers Peach & Pineapple pack of 8 x 70g

Dorrien Wines Pty Ltd voluntarily recalled Dorrien Wines XII Apostles Mildara Victoria Merlot 750 mL, 2007 vintage due to the presence of an undeclared allergen – sulphur dioxide (Preservative 220). The notification applies only to the product with the 750 mL, green glass bottle of 2007 vintage. Please note that this product is safe to drink unless the consumer suffers from an allergy to sulphites.

Whisk & Pin Pty Ltd voluntarily recalled Whisk & Pin Gluten Free Muesli (500 g and 1 kg packs) with a Best Before:15APR 09 to 25APR 09 inclusive in NSW, VIC and QLD. The reason for this recall was that the product may mistakenly contain gluten wheat bran which may pose a health risk to consumers with gluten intolerancePlease note that this product is safe to eat unless the consumer has intolerance to gluten.

There were six recalls in New Zealand over the same period.

Goodman Fielder New Zealand Ltd voluntarily recalled Pam’s, Edmonds and Champion Self-Raising Flour. The products have been found to contain milk powder, which is not clearly identified on the label of the packet. The affected products are for sale in the South Island only. The product recall affects all batches up to and including Best Before: 09 05 09C. No other batches of Pam’s, Edmonds or Champion products are impacted by this recall. The products affected are:

  • Edmonds self-raising flour 1.25kg and 2.5kg
  • Champion self-raising flour 1.5kg and 5kg
  • Pam’s self-raising flour 1.5kg

Weight Watchers Australia conducted a voluntary recall of Rich Toffee Bars (5 x 28g bars Best Before: Mar – 09 Batch Codes: L8079 and L8080) sold in Weight Watchers meeting locations and over the internet. The reason for this recall is that the product contains egg white which is not declared on the label and may pose a health risk to consumers with intolerance to egg white. Consumers who are allergic to eggs should not consume this product. Consumers who are not allergic to eggs can safely consume this product. This recall only applies to products with the nominated size, Best Before date and batch codes. No other Weight Watchers products are affected by this product recall. Apart from this issue there is no other fault with this product.

Anathoth Marketing Ltd recalled 34 cartons of Anathoth Lemon & Tuscan Herb Vinaigrette (275 mL bottle) marked with Best Before: 170309 after discovering they have been incorrectly labelled. The product contains Parmesan Cheese and Pine Nuts by mistake, which are not declared on the label.

National Foods recalled its range of Yoplait Go-Gurt and Yoplait Smackers products as a result of a packaging defect. The packaging defect means there is a risk of small pieces of clear plastic film separating from the outside of the tube, which may pose a choking hazard, especially for small children. The product recall affects all batches up to and including Best Before 27 09 08. No other products are affected. The products affected are:

  • Yoplait Go-Gurt Spiders pack of 8 x 70g
  • Yoplait Go-Gurt Strawberry & Fruit Salad pack of 8 x 70g
  • Yoplait Raspberry & Apricot pack of 8 x 70g
  • Yoplait Smackers Strawberry pack of 8 x 70g
  • Yoplait Smackers Peach & Pineapple pack of 8 x 70g

Pakihi Marine Farms Ltd recalled their Clevedon Coast Oysters® after discovering that the product may have been contaminated with a micro organism that may cause vomiting or diarrhoea. The product is sold in retail and the food service industry throughout New Zealand. The products affected are ½ Shell Oysters, Pottled Oysters with batch numbers: 2300687 – 2210780; 4240687 – 4110780; 9060780 – 9080780. This recall does not affect any other Pakihi Marine Farms Ltd product.

Survey on the presence of gluten in foods labelled “gluten-free”

A survey conducted by the New South Wales Food Authority (NSWFA) found a high level of compliance to gluten content labelling.

Gluten is a common ingredient used in many processed foods to improve product texture, moisture, retention and flavour. The use of gluten in foods presents a problem to a proportion of the population intolerant to gluten, the resulting condition known as coeliac disease. Coeliac disease is an immune reaction which causes inflammation and damage to the lining of the small intestines. This in turn affects the ability of the small intestine to absorb nutrients. Symptoms of coeliac disease include fatigue, bloating, cramps, diarrhoea and mouth ulcers.

To determine the gluten status of products claiming to be “gluten-free”, in 2007 the NSWFA undertook a survey of foods labeled “gluten-free.” A total of 211 foods labelled as “gluten-free” were purchased from retail outlets. The foods purchased included:

  • Beverages
  • Biscuits
  • Bread and bread products
  • Cakes
  • Chips
  • Confectionary
  • Dairy
  • Flour and premixes
  • Infant foods
  • Meat products
  • Pasta
  • Rice/corn cakes
  • Snack bars
  • Sauces and gravy
  • Soups
  • Spreads

The samples were analysed for gluten using Biokits Gluten Assay Kits manufactured by Tepnel Biosystems. The kits are an accredited AOAC Official method and measure gluten both qualitatively and quantitatively, with a limit of reporting of 3 ppm (mg/kg). The tests were conducted as per the manufacturer’s instructions.

Of the 211 “gluten-free” products analysed, 95.3% contained no detectable gluten. Ten samples were found to contain gluten, with gluten content ranging from 4 ppm to 160 ppm (see Table 1).

Table 1: Gluten levels in food samples

While these samples do not meet the requirements of the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, regulatory action taken was commensurate to the risk to human health for the individual product and was guided by recent research.

Internationally there has been some research on potential threshold levels for gluten. The US Food and Drug Administration reported a threshold for coeliac sensitivity in the range 20 to 100 ppm. In addition, international standards permit gluten free claims for products containing less than 20 ppm of gluten.

Based on the above, where detected levels were less than 20 ppm, the manufacturer and/or the appropriate State/Territory food regulatory jurisdiction were informed of the results. These low levels of gluten may be attributed to cross-contamination during the manufacturing.

Levels of between 20 to 100 ppm may affect some people with coeliac disease and as such, the manufacturer and/or the appropriate State/Territory food regulatory jurisdiction were informed of the results. In these cases, product withdrawal was suggested as well as a review of procedures and/or labelling.

Where gluten was detected at levels greater than 100 ppm, a voluntary food recall was initiated by the manufacturer.

Overall, the majority of foods labeled “gluten-free” did not contain detectable gluten. Only 4.7% of samples contained gluten, and only 2.8% exceeded internationally recognised levels for “gluten-free” foods.

The full details of the survey can be found on the NSWFA website, http://www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/_Documents/corporate_pdf/gluten_survey_2008_final_report.pdf

OzFoodNet Report: Summary of Foodborne Outbreaks in Australia, 2006

OzFoodNet, established in 2000, provides enhanced foodborne disease surveillance in Australia. The Oz FoodNet network consists of epidemiologists employed by each state and territory health department to conduct investigations and applied research into foodborne disease. The network involves many different collaborators, including the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health and the Public Health Laboratory Network. OzFoodNet is a member of the Communicable Diseases Network Australia, which is Australia’s peak body for communicable disease control.

OzFoodNet provides the capacity to investigate and respond to nationally important new and emerging foodborne diseases, monitors the burden of these illnesses, and identifies the sources of specific foodborne outbreaks through enhanced communication and cooperation amongst jurisdictions. OzFoodNet collects data on gastrointestinal outbreaks, including those caused by contaminated food, occurring across Australia. These data provide information on common causes of outbreaks and inform the development of policy on food safety. This article summarises the work of Oz FoodNet in 2006 and published in its Annual Report 2006.[1]

Foodborne outbreaks 2006

During 2006, OzFoodNet recorded 115 confirmed foodborne or suspected foodborne disease outbreaks (Table 1). These outbreaks affected a total of 1522 people and hospitalised 146 people. The reporting rates of foodborne outbreaks for different OzFoodNet sites ranged from 2 outbreaks per million population in Tasmania to 14.5 outbreaks per million population in Northern Territory.

The most common agent responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks was Salmonella, which caused 36% (41/115) of outbreaks (Table 2). Salmonella Typhimurium was responsible for 61% (25/41) of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks.

Restaurants (41%, 47/115), and private residences (13%, 15/115) were the most common settings for foodborne disease outbreaks in 2006 (Table 3). Foods that were contaminated in primary production environments (‘primary produce’), such as fish contaminated with ciguatera toxin and fresh fruits and vegetables contaminated with Salmonella, accounted for another 10 outbreaks.

Eggs and egg-containing dishes were identified as the most common outbreak food vehicle in 2006 and were responsible for 14% (16/115) of foodborne outbreaks (Table 4). All jurisdictions except for the Northern Territory have reported egg-related Salmonella outbreaks due to various strains of Salmonella Typhimurium in 2006. An assortment of food vehicles were identified in these outbreaks, including desserts, salad dressings, sauces, milkshakes and under/lightly cooked

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